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Pauler’s Flying Car
The year is 2015, so we are in the future now. Where is my flying car? Here, Elvis.
About this creation

Figure 0: Flight view of Pauler’s Flying Car
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Figure 1: Road view of Pauler’s Flying Car
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1 Introduction and inspiration

Pauler’s Flying Car is a concept art MOC of a roadable aircraft, but it is strictly tied to real engineering principles.
Building commercially viable flying car is a 100 years dream posing almost impossible challenge even for real engineering at current level of technology. Interested readers may check the biggest Roadable aircrafts website for the full list of difficulties and earlier experiments to solve them.
In any retro-futuristic tabloid article, we will have flying cars all around within a decade, and they are promising this continuously since 1920… Therefore we created a retro-futuristic styled model.
Our purpose was to develop a new layout of flying car with four goals:

1 - Compact road dimensions without any extending surfaces, which make driving in cross-wind or tight turns at high speed very dangerous

2 - Self-contained machine without the need of any additional modules, or parts to drop for road/flight conversion

3 - Fully powered road/flight conversion by a pushbutton from the cockpit

4 - Reasonably large, fully servo controlled steering surfaces, comparable to light aircrafts, enabling to survive wind shear or dead engine crash landing

Achieving these goals required squeezing 14 power functions, 11 manual functions and 24 non-working features in a 21-stud wide body in scale 1:10:


Figure 2: Functional overview of Pauler’s Flying Car
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Before creating our model, we studied existing real flying cars:

1. Terrafugia Flying Car, Woburn (MA), USA is a 2-seat ultralight with electric side folding wings, pusher propeller, double tails and separate road- and aero engines. As it has excellent flying characteristics, it is the only flying car reaching FAA-certification up to date.


Figure 3: Road view of Terrafugia

However the price of it is reduced roadworthiness: theoretically, it can make 65mph on good quality road, but high Center of Gravity (COG) of vertically folded wings, and large unfolded tail surfaces can make nightmare driving it in tight turns or in crosswind.


Figure 4: Flight view of Terrafugia

2. Aeromobil Flying Car, Slovakia is a 2-seat ultralight with backward folding shoulder wings, single engine and pusher propeller aft double tail. It is still in research phase completing some road and air tests, but without real road/flight conversion on the spot. It is much more roadworthy vehicle than Terrafugia, maintaining better COG and crosswind-tolerance.


Figure 5: Road view of Aeromobil
It is done at the price of flying qualities: tail is too short and unfolded rudder/ elevator surfaces are too small. Moreover, the propeller has a long transmission shaft from the engine, and it is too close to control surfaces, causing strong vibration at the tail. Small control surfaces did their toll when Aeromobil had a non-lethal but serious accident entering wind shear during test flight.


Figure 6: Flight view of Aeromobil
Common disadvantage of both designs that they are using fixed pitch propellers for simplicity, which cannot be feathered when they are fixed in road mode. This generates considerable unwanted drag.

Regarding flying cars in the Brick Universe, we do not deal here with tons of very different quality MOCs from Hollywood movie franchise items: Back to the future DeLorean, Blade runner Cop Car, Fifth element Cab, Total recall Cop Car, Pluto Nash Moon Car, Harry Potter Ford Anglia, Lego Movie Bad Cop Car 70802, etc.. They have nothing to do with real engineering and basic laws of physics. Unfortunately, non-franchise flying car MOCs are usually also tied to the good old antigravity principle, so we mention here shortly only the two most creative models:

Kaitimar's Flying DS19 is unbeatable in styling and brick usage of artistic quality. However, it is unclear what will generate any lifting force.


Figure 7: Kaitimar's Flying DS19 MOC

Chris Wunztwice's 2048 Tucker Flying Car has the merit of preserving retro-futuristic styling of Tucker cars with smart brick usage, moreover adding at least vacuum-cleaner sized thrusters at the place of wheels.


Figure 8: Chris Wunztwice's 2048 Tucker Flying Car MOC

Now, it is time to bounce back in the dull working days of real physics and engineering…

2 Action screenshots of Pauler’s Flying Car

*For high quality artistic rendering, very special thanks to C BigBoy99899


Figure 9: Contemporary magazine advertisement of Pauler’s Flying Car
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One can notice from the ad that our model has 3-wheeled chassis instead of 4. This was the price of backward folding, sizeable inverted gull wings and the more conventional nose engine + propeller aircraft layout. Moreover, 3-wheeled chassis is lighter, and its ideal Center Of Gravity (COG) is 2:1 closer to front wheels than rear one. This helps to ease the ideal COG shift problem between road- and flight modes: in flight mode, ideal COG is very close to front wheels.


Figure 10: Pauler’s Flying Car at the dealer
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The price is that 3-wheeled chassis has much worse rollover tendency than 4-wheeled… Except if front wheels have variable height suspension, and the vehicle can “lean” in tight turns. We studied Riley‘s excellent website about how to build 3-wheeled sports vehicles with leaning suspension, and designed one.


Figure 11: Pauler’s Flying Car on Route 66
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Another unique feature of our model is usage of folding V-tail control surfaces. Their advantage is compactness, while disadvantage is requirement of more complex controls, as rudder- and elevator inputs should be mixed. That’s why V-tail is less frequently used than conventional rudder + elevator tail. But at some light aircrafts, V-tail is already tried and proven technology (e.g. Beechcraft Bonanza B-35 since 1950, or Predator drones more recently). After some struggle, we managed to solve mixing elevator- and rudder servo control inputs.


Figure 12: Pauler’s Flying Car transforms to flight
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Our goal was that the whole transition process from road to flight or back should be fully motorized, controlled by press of buttons from cockpit. In real engineering, it will require at least a dozen electric servo motors or hydraulic actuators. In TLG parts, both electric servo motors and hydraulic systems are VERY-VERY UNCOMPACT and expensive. Therefore, we decided that single nose-mounted engine will drive everything: propeller, road wheels and all servos. This is done by using TLG parts ‘Gear wheel Z16 -4.9mm’ and ‘Driving ring’ from regular Technic gear box stuff as clutches/direction reversers for dozen of servo drives to achieve fully motorized transition:


Figure 13: Pauler’s Flying Car takes off
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As the rather bulky servo gearing filled up the void space in the real main fuel tank between wing roots, we placed the PF Battery pack (which drives 2 PF M-motors of nose-mounted engine) in the forward part of the bonnet, leaving there space only for a briefcase. To justify its space consumption, PF Battery pack simulates the container of the emergency ballistic parachute. As Pauler’s Flying Car usually flown by inexperienced civilian pilots having just 30-40 hours of training, they cannot be expected to solve difficult situations (wind shear, dead engine crash landing) or use personal parachute correctly. Therefore, the whole aircraft should be rescued by a sizeable parachute, scarifying bonnet.


Figure 14: Pauler’s Flying Car deploys ballistic parachute after mid-air collision
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But ballistic parachute crash landing is not the end of the road for Pauler’s Flying Car. The real end of the road – just like for any thoroughbred retro-futuristic yank tanks – is being street gang car in Habana, Cuba. The year is 2019, when liberalization process and death of Fidel culminates in the first free elections in the history of the island (and the gangster era afterwards).


Figure 15: End of the road for Pauler’s Flying Car: on the streets of Habana, Cuba
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One can notice that against the battered look of the vehicle, the ex-Soviet AMD assault rifle and Makarov pistol are kept in excellent condition (of course they are spring driven shooting, with 9 round box magazine of 1.5×7mm projectiles).

3 Technical details of Pauler’s Flying Car

*This part is technical and for aircraft builders with at least some experience. If you do not understand how do rigid wing aircraft controls work, you can find an excellent summary at: Wikipedia

**In the forthcoming technical description, functional parts of Pauler’s Flying Car are referenced by numbers which can be found on technical drawings attached

***Parts of Pauler’s Flying Car are color-coded by their function:
- Yellow: Manual handles of working functions, Compass
- Gray/Black: Static parts
- White: Dynamic parts
- Dark blue: Seats of pilots
- Light blue: Water-methanol 50
- Red: Outer plating, spark plugs, pilots
- Dark green: Battery
- Light green: Nitrox


Figure 16: Left cutaway view of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1 Dynamic systems of Pauler’s Flying Car

3.1.1 Engine installation

The backward folding wing layout puts wing roots – and hence optimal Center Of Gravity (COG) during flight – rather forward (approximately in line with left/right mirrors). So we can place a relatively heavy, high performance engine in the short nose to maintain correct longitudinal balance of the craft. We designed a 7850 ccm /480 cubic inch displacement, supercharged, liquid cooled V-12 OHC engine with electrically driven rotating crankshaft/ double camshafts. Two PF M-motors are built in place of Roots-compressor, so they do not distort appearance of the engine. Front end of the engine mounts the propeller shaft. PF M-motors are geared to crankshaft 1:1, to propeller shaft 3:1. Crankshaft is geared to camshaft 2:1, as this is a 4-stroke engine. We modeled wet sump lubricant system with turbo-cooled oil radiator mounted at the belly of engine. Left/right coolant radiators and their fans are above the front wheels. Two alternators are mounted at rear end of camshafts and two batteries are placed at the tail.


Figure 17: Engine installation of Pauler’s Flying Car
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There are three independent boost systems modeled as non-working features for the engine:
- Roots-type supercharger with manually controllable blow down pressure.
- Water-methanol 50% mix is directly injected to cylinders together with 100 octane aero fuel to cool them internally and increase thermal efficiency at high engine load.
- Nitrox can be added to intake air for short periods of time to accelerate burning.
Water-methanol and nitrox tanks are mounted in the tail. Their piping is omitted, together with pipelines of fuel system, as servo mechanics eat up all available space between wing roots, where main fuel tank would reside. However we modeled fuel refill caps close to the windscreen. Hollow inner sections of wings have integral auxiliary fuel tanks.
Exhaust system is largely omitted, as there are only 12 exhaust shrouds of cylinders exhausting downward back 45 degrees, without any mufflers. This would generate almost unbearable engine noise at road mode. However, in flight mode, a muffled system would seriously reduce engine performance. Because of mechanics at wing roots, there was very clearly no place to install dual exhaust system.

3.1.2 Propeller hub

Current real flying cars have relatively small, fixed pitch, non-foldable pusher propellers for budget reasons, so they can transmit only limited engine power in flight mode, while they generate considerable drag in road mode. We wanted to overcome these difficulties designing a 3-blade, variable pitch, folding, nose-mounted propeller with the usual diameter for light aircrafts. We had to solve clutching of propeller to propeller shaft, changing pitch of blades, and blade folding in a relatively small propeller hub unit.


Figure 18: Propeller hub of Pauler’s Flying Car
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The key for the solution is TLG part ‘Technic hub’, which can by default freely rotate and slide on propeller shaft. The hub has an outer driving rim, allowing a slideable catch altering its position during rotation. Bearings of the 3 blade pitch axises are mounted on the hub. Pair of small driving rings fixed to propeller shaft forces blade pitch arms from 0 to +20 degrees pitch, when the hub is pulled backward by catch 1/3 studs, moreover pins at the rear end of the hub catch studs placed on Z24 gear of propeller shaft. This is how clutching and blade pitching is done with one move rotating (T5) propeller clutch dial under the dashboard. Blades are opened by the centrifugal force of spinning up propeller, while they are closed after de-clutching and braking propeller by their air drag while the craft is still rolling on runway. Blade pitching is necessary because blades can be closed correctly only if they are set to 0 degree pitch.

3.1.3 Transmission

Besides propeller transmission described above, we need compact and light land transmission also. (E28) rear end of crankshaft continues in (T11) rotation reverser consisting of 3 ‘Z12 half beveled gear’ parts. This provides forward/backward drive for (T12) main clutch/direction reverser of land transmission consisting of ‘Z16 gear -4.9mm’ and ‘Driving ring’ parts. This can be set to Backward/Neutral/Forward with gearing ratios -1/0/+1 with the help of (T13) direction shift lever. IT will serve direction shift not only for rear wheel but also for wing folding servo and power retraction of rear landing gear/ suspension.


Figure 19: Transmission of Pauler’s Flying Car
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Direction shift switch is necessary because we use manual Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) gear shift to transform torque by shifting gearing ratio neutral/9:5-5:9 by (T18) lever. The CVT unit itself has no reverse. Rear suspension and drive of single rear wheel is pretty similar to a motor bike driven by transaxle instead of chain. Z20 and Z12 half beveled gears of final drive modify gearing ratio with 5:3. This way crankshaft of engine is geared to rear wheel: neutral/ +/- 3:1-25:27.

3.1.4 Manual CVT gear shift

Our CVT gear shift is probably the smallest and lightest workable gear shift designed from Lego ever. It is development of an original idea of Sheepo, who designed it with 2 cone wheels + side-pressed rubberized friction wheel by rubber band. But it was not enough compact and could transmit only limited torque. Therefore, we designed friction wheel pressed between cone wheels, where it can slide and rotate with the help of a sloped axis. Rear bearings of the CVT are mounted on a unit which can slide forward/back, and pressed forward by a rubber counter-spring. This ensures that cone wheels can compress rubberized friction wheel to transmit reasonable torque, moreover it gives very compact layout. This way - even adding gear shift lever with leading pin - the CVT unit fits in 6×4×6 studs.


Figure 20: Manual CVT gear shift of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.5 Ackerman steering

Light aircraft usually have tail wheel land steering, which is highly impractical in road mode. Therefore, we had to develop modified version of Ackerman-steering with toothed bar, which is workable in any position of main landing gear from fully opened for take off/landing to road mode. To avoid connected leading arms of forward suspension, steering arms protrude forward. They are connected with (C4) omega-shaped connector, which avoids oil sump and oil radiator of engine. (C24) toothed bar is pretty long to allow (C1) dual steering wheels to be synchronized. Because of its weird geometry, (C3) direction reverser gears are needed for steering wheels to get them working in correct direction. Rear section of (C2) steering axises are flexing by universal joints to allow dual control columns working. Centering device of steering is omitted because lack of space.


Figure 21: Ackerman steering of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.6 Brakes

Front wheels have double disc brakes actuated by synchronized dual brake pedals via Bowden cables. Rear wheel has drum brake actuated by hand via track rod and grip type ratchet. Braking is performed by TLG parts ‘Rubber damper 2×1×1’.


Figure 22: Brakes of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.7 Main landing gear/ front suspension

As 3-wheeled chassis has pretty bad rollover tendency, we had to design servo-controlled independent front suspension to allow the vehicle to be leaned in high speed tight turns to compensate that in road mode. Moreover, these servos provide power opening/retraction of main landing gear in flight mode.


Figure 23: Main landing gear/ front suspension of Pauler’s Flying Car
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(T11) direction reverser gear drives (C39) two separate chains of running gears made from ‘Z16 gear -4.9mm’, which provide forward/backward drive of 12 separate servo clutches/ direction reversers. The two servos at the left/right flanks of this chain drive worm gear + Z24 gear combos, which actuate (L9) upper swingarms of forward suspension. Swingarms raise/depress (L10) ‘Shock absorber extra hard’ parts, which are connected to (L11) leading arms of the front suspension. Left/right leading arms are connected with each other to serve torsional cross stabilization, but left/right servos are enough strong to override it and lean the chassis in tight turns. Unfortunately we could not solve automatic leaning control, because it depends on several parameters (steering, speed, inclination, etc.), but pilots can control left/right leaning and retraction/opening main landing gear via (L4) control lever.

3.1.8 Tail landing gear/ rear suspension

Rear suspension is pretty similar to a motorbike driven by transaxle, except that tail landing gear can be power retracted with the help of (L1) linear actuator. It is driven by (T31) simple clutch placed on the forward extension of (T12) direction shift shaft. Engaging clutch with (T33) lever connects linear actuator to drivetrain and backward/neutral/forward setting of (T13) direction shift lever determines whether rear landing gear is opened or retracted. As CVT gear shift has separate neutral setting, rear wheel is not necessarily driven during opening/retracting rear landing gear, but it is possible to do so.


Figure 24: Tail landing gear/ rear suspension of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.9 Wing folding mechanism

Wing folding is also driven by (T24) simple clutch placed on forward extension of (T12) direction shift shaft actuated by (T26) trackrod. As (T24) clutch is more higher placed than (T30) wing root turntables, it transmits drive with the help of (T27) running gears towards (T28) worm gear, which actuates turntables through (T29) Z8 pinion gears. Double wing spars are fixed to rotating part of turntables. The 3-stud internal holes in turntables are used to lead through servo drive towards leading edge flaps and ailerons/airbrakes.


Figure 25: Wing folding mechanism of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.10 Leading edge flaps

Left/right leading edge flaps can be actuated separately by their own servo through 2 stages of Z8 gear + worm gear combos. Upper worm gears are mounted on airframe, while lower worm gears are mounted on rotating parts of wing root turntables. Upper- and lower worm gears are only clutched when wings are fully opened, so one can open/close/set leading edge flaps only at opened wings. Besides compacting the folded wing, leading edge flaps are used during take off/ landing to increase lifting force (and drag) generated by wings. They can be separately controlled left/right to balance uneven left/right mass distribution of pilots and compensate torque of the large propeller.


Figure 26: Leading edge flaps of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.11 Dual control columns

Until this point, we tried to render existing solutions of aero engineering in Lego. Creating dual control columns is different problem: it is still open question even in real engineering, which is the best way to marry instrument panel + control columns of an aircraft with dashboard + steering wheel of a car. Designers of Terrafugia and Aeromobil did not publish anything about it because of patent reasons. There is quite a conflict among aircraft and car controls: at aircrafts, rudder control both in the air and land is controlled by rudder pedals, while “steering wheel” is responsible for ailerons and roll control. At a flying car, there can be a situation (e.g. landing in strong cross wind), when pilot has to maintain BOTH rudder and steering simultaneously with very different setting (e.g. rudder towards wind direction to counteract drifting, but steer wheels towards runway direction), therefore rudder and steering cannot be simply unified, they should be separate controls. Making matters worse, Pauler’s Flying Car has V-tail, which requires mixing elevator- and rudder inputs.


Figure 27: Dual control columns of Pauler’s Flying Car
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We resolved the problem in the following way:
- Turning dual steering wheels just controls Ackerman-steering of main landing gear (even when opened) and they are synchronized by sharing common toothed bar. However rear end of steering shafts can be flexed freely with the help of universal joints.
- Moving steering columns left/right is left/right roll control, influencing servo clutches of left/right ailerons in the opposite direction through (C33) roll control hinges.
- However, applying airbrake, left/right aileron/airbrake surfaces should move simultaneously. Therefore, we put (C34) airbrake pedals at the end of roll control hinges, to modify roll control input when needed. We used separate left/right airbrake pedals to facilitate left/right aileron trim to counterbalance uneven left/right mass distribution and torque of propeller.
- Moving steering columns up/down is dive/pull up elevator control, influencing servo clutches of left/right elevators through (C35) elevator control hinges simultaneously.
- However, as we have V-tail here, elevators are rudders also, therefore (C36) rudder pedals modify elevator input influencing elevator/rudder servo clutches in opposite direction
- Roll control and elevator control is synchronized between dual control columns by (C37) synchronizer beam. To save space, it serves as structural support of main instrument panel also, therefore that follows movement of steering columns.
- Dual rudder pedals are synchronized by (C38) trackrod hidden inside instrument panel

3.1.12 Ailerons and airbrakes

Besides being controlled by the dual control column as described above, ailerons/airbrakes have pretty similar servo mechanics as described at leading edge flaps. They have two stages of worm gear + Z8 gear combos, but they are only clutched when the wings are fully opened.


Figure 28: Ailerons and airbrakes of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.13 Elevators and rudders

Elevator/rudder control is little bit more tricky, because its inputs should be mixed. We achieved this mounting their control hinges interlinked with each other:
- (C33) Roll control hinges (marked with blue color) are mounted on airframe by vertical rotation axis.
- (C35) Elevator control hinges (light green) are mounted on roll control hinges by horizontal rotation axis.
- (C36) Rudder pedals (red) are mounted on elevator control hinges by vertical rotation axis.
This will result in correct movement of elevator/rudder surfaces of V-tail driven through long drive shafts with universal joints ending in worm gears:


Figure 29: Elevators and rudders of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.14 Tail folding servos

As folding of left/right V-tail surfaces is not directly linked to steering, it is controlled by separate servos and control levels. Theoretically, there is no need for separate left/right control, but it was easier to build.


Figure 30: Tail folding servos of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.1.15 Tail mechanics

Both left and right V-tail mechanics units (we show here the left one) have two input drive shafts:
- One is responsible for steering. It is clutched to its worm gear inly if the tail is opened
- The other is responsible for opening/folding. It is constantly connected with its worm gear.


Figure 31: Tail mechanics of Pauler’s Flying Car
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Opening the tail involves combined movement of both drive shafts:
- First, tail surfaces are opened backward 90 degrees
- This clutches their steering driveshaft to respective worm gears
- Then, elevator/rudder surfaces are rotated 135 degrees in “dive” direction to reach their flight position

3.2 Avionics of Pauler’s Flying Car

3.2.1 Instrument panel/ dashboard and controls summary

Complexity of a flying car is pretty well shown overviewing the instrument panel and controls: pilots has to maintain 16 working controls and there are further 26 important controls/instruments we could model only as non-working features. So, it is definitely not Granma’s shopping minivan (but who knows, there are cool Granmas also…)


Figure 32: Instrument panel/ dashboard and controls summary of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.2.2 Navigation systems

As we wanted to create a thoroughbred retro-futuristic flying yank tank, we omitted all the modern electronics and GPS gizmos. Magnetic compass, mechanic gyroscope, two 8-valve MW/VHF/UHF radio sets providing transponder and ILS should be enough to bring down the rig in one piece at any weather in the age when men were men, women were women and flying cars were flying cars.


Figure 33: Navigation systems of Pauler’s Flying Car
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3.3 Accrual systems of Pauler’s Flying Car

3.3.1 Ballistic rescue parachute

As nowadays men are rarely men, and woman are men, and pets are kids, and even microwave ovens have the warning do not dry the cat, flying cars need ballistic parachute as last resort against stupidity of users. However, it is ambiguous last resort: there is a thin envelope of altitude and speed combinations when opening parachute can save the troubled craft. Otherwise, it is merely an invitation to your funeral. Especially if you have a stone heavy supercharged V-12 at your knees… We simulated modern paraglider airfoil in LDD with series of Technic panels forming 44 cells connected with 88 lines having 264.00 studs / 2112.00 mm / 83.15 in, Real size: 21.12 m / 69 ft 2.95 in wing span.


Figure 34: Ballistic rescue parachute of Pauler’s Flying Car
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4 Dimensions of Pauler’s Flying Car

4.1 Road dimensions

- Length: 85.50 studs / 684.00 mm / 26.93 in, Real size: 6.84 m / 22 ft 5.12 in
- Wheelbase: 42.00 studs / 336.00 mm / 13.23 in, Real size: 3.36 m / 11 ft 0.20 in
- Height: 18.00 studs / 144.00 mm / 5.67 in, Real size: 1.44 m / 4 ft 8.66 in
- Body ground clearance: 2.00 studs / 16.00 mm / 0.63 in, Real size: 0.16 m / 0 ft 6.30 in
- Body width: 21.00 studs / 168.00 mm / 6.61 in, Real size: 1.68 m / 5 ft 6.10 in
- Track width: 19.00 studs / 152.00 mm / 5.98 in, Real size: 1.52 m / 4 ft 11.81 in
- Front rim diameter: 5.40 studs / 43.20 mm / 1.70 in, Real size: 0.43 m / 1 ft 5.00 in
- Front tire diameter: 7.80 studs / 62.40 mm / 2.46 in, Real size: 0.62 m / 2 ft 0.55 in
- Front tire width: 2.50 studs / 20.00 mm / 0.79 in, Real size: 0.20 m / 0 ft 7.87 in
- Front wheel spring path/retraction: 1.00 studs / 8.00 mm / 0.31 in, Real size: 0.08 m / 0 ft 3.15 in
- Front leading arm length: 8.00 studs / 64.00 mm / 2.52 in, Real size: 0.64 m / 2 ft 1.18 in
- Back rim diameter: 9.43 studs / 75.44 mm / 2.97 in, Real size: 0.75 m / 2 ft 5.69 in
- Back tire diameter: 13.00 studs / 104.00 mm / 4.09 in, Real size: 1.04 m / 3 ft 4.92 in
- Back tire width: 2.50 studs / 20.00 mm / 0.79 in, Real size: 0.20 m / 0 ft 7.87 in
- Back wheel spring path/retraction: 2.00 studs / 16.00 mm / 0.63 in, Real size: 0.16 m / 0 ft 6.30 in
- Back trailing arm length: 8.00 studs / 64.00 mm / 2.52 in, Real size: 0.64 m / 2 ft 1.18 in


Figure 35: Road 3-plane view of Pauler’s Flying Car
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4.2 Flight dimensions

- Wing span: 120.00 studs / 960.00 mm / 37.80 in, Real size: 9.60 m / 31 ft 5.71 in
- Wing chord: 17.00 studs / 136.00 mm / 5.35 in, Real size: 1.36 m / 4 ft 5.51 in
- Wing area: 2040.00 sqstuds / 1305.60 sqcm / 202.37 sqinch, Real size: 13.06 sqm / 140.35 sqfeet
- Length: 92.50 studs / 740.00 mm / 29.13 in, Real size: 7.40 m / 24 ft 3.15 in
- V-tail half span/height: 14.85 studs / 118.79 mm / 4.68 in, Real size: 1.19 m / 3 ft 10.75 in
- Distance between wing- and tail spars: 59.00 studs / 472.00 mm / 18.58 in, Real size: 4.72 m / 15 ft 5.71 in
- V-tail plane chord: 7.00 studs / 56.00 mm / 2.20 in, Real size: 0.56 m / 1 ft 10.04 in
- Height with landing gear down: 32.00 studs / 256.00 mm / 10.08 in, Real size: 2.56 m / 8 ft 4.72 in
- Propeller diameter: 27.50 studs / 220.00 mm / 8.66 in, Real size: 2.20 m / 7 ft 2.56 in


Figure 36: Flight 3-plane view of Pauler’s Flying Car
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Comparing road- and flight 3 plane views, one can see that how effectively 3-wheeled chassis and forward opening wings resolve the Center Of Gravity (COG) shift problem between road- and flight mode. In road mode, COG of wheelbase triangle is in line with the windscreen. In flight mode, ideal COG is in line with left/right mirrors. COG shift forward is small distance, and certainly can be solved by the mass of forward folding wings. Distribution of fuel reserves among main tank and wing tanks will further help to maintain correct COG in both road- and flight modes.

5 Unsolved problems of Pauler’s Flying Car

1.In general, the model would be extremely fragile, with minimal playability, as we had to stretch the physical limits of Lego bricks because of complexity of the machine.

2.Lego Technic modeling in scale 1:10 was enough realistic to show why parking lot of Wal-Mart won’t be full of flying cars in your lifetime. A ridiculously complex machinery requiring expensive parts (e.g. supercharged V-12 engine), very strong materials, and extreme engineering solutions can carry two persons and a briefcase in good weather conditions, with rather modest flying and road qualities. From the same resources, far better separate car and aircraft could be built. At current level of technology, cars and aircrafts cannot be married effectively. Flying cars could be built, just not worth to build them. Their only practical use is symbol of class/womanizing/leisure tool for stone rich ones.

3.Comparing to the issue above, it has secondary importance that there are tons of unsolved engineering problems left in my model: lack of propeller folding control, lack of dual exhaust system, lack of enclosed cockpit (it is partly because weight, partly because there was not enough large bubble windscreen in TLG parts), lack of synchronization between steering and leaning, lack of synchronized airbrake control, missing elevator/rudder trims, vulnerability of folded wings, etc.

But retro-futurism sooner or later will overcome… and our heart beats with big block of yank tanks, forever.


Building instructions
Download building instructions (LEGO Digital Designer)

Comments

 I made it 
  March 16, 2017
Quoting Petey Bird This made my day. Really cool!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  March 16, 2017
This made my day. Really cool!
 I made it 
  February 26, 2017
Quoting Bacon Tomato Both the model and the presentation are first-rate. Although, I admit I didn't look at everything. I hope to some day.
Thanks.
 I like it 
  February 26, 2017
Both the model and the presentation are first-rate. Although, I admit I didn't look at everything. I hope to some day.
 I made it 
  September 3, 2016
Quoting Kurt's MOCs This is awesome! Great design and presentation. Wonderful work, as always!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  September 3, 2016
This is awesome! Great design and presentation. Wonderful work, as always!
 I made it 
  February 27, 2016
Quoting Marin Stipkovic Wow!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  February 27, 2016
Wow!
 I made it 
  September 11, 2015
Quoting Anders T There is a certain leyer of crazy in this. Oh how it tickles my geeky glands.
Just like your sailships...
 I like it 
  September 10, 2015
There is a certain leyer of crazy in this. Oh how it tickles my geeky glands.
 I made it 
  September 10, 2015
Quoting Andrew31kbrick193 /// I see that you posted this in the Bionicle Vehicles Group, where are the Bionicle parts?
The pilots are made from Bionicle, mainly.
 I made it 
  September 8, 2015
Quoting LukeClarenceVan The Revanchist I may have lost an hour, but I gained a lot of cool information about flying cars! Awesome build Gabor, and fascinating write-up! I love the mix of history, futurism, and LEGO presented here. Spectacular work.
Thanks.
 I made it 
  September 8, 2015
Quoting Parrington Levens Oh wow, this is just zaney!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  September 8, 2015
I may have lost an hour, but I gained a lot of cool information about flying cars! Awesome build Gabor, and fascinating write-up! I love the mix of history, futurism, and LEGO presented here. Spectacular work.
 I like it 
  September 8, 2015
Oh wow, this is just zaney!
 I made it 
  September 7, 2015
Quoting Sam the First This is awesome! Great engineering, and a very cool outcome!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  September 7, 2015
This is awesome! Great engineering, and a very cool outcome!
  September 6, 2015
I see that you posted this in the Bionicle Vehicles Group, where are the Bionicle parts?
 I made it 
  September 4, 2015
Quoting Jeremy McCreary Oh, I see below that your PhD was in artificial intelligence (AI). As an aside, do you see any future in AI as a way to supplement human male intelligence WRT the understanding of women? As you know, the natural male capacity in that regard is and always has been hopelessly inadequate.
My wife can confirm that AI absolutely does not help much modeling female behavior (especially during design/building time...). I used AI in credit decision supporting and Forex trading, these are also not very easy fields.
 I made it 
  September 4, 2015
Quoting Jeremy McCreary By far your most astounding page yet, Gabor, and that's saying something! I don't even know where to begin. The design, execution, and presentation are all phenomenal -- a true tour de force. Love the ads. I'll have to come back to study the technical drawings (superb) and mechanicals in much more detail, as I've already spotted dozens of new tricks for my repertoire. The 2 variable pitch props I've attempted were way too bulky for actual use, so I'll be paying special attention to your solution there. BTW, what's your background, if you don't mind my asking? Noticed the Dr. in front of your name -- PhD, MD, or something else? I also do my best to stay true to real-world science and engineering in my functioning builds, but my efforts in that regard pale in comparison.
Thanks. Putting the 3 Plane view summaries at the end of the post was inspired by your posts summarizing technical specs at the end.
 I like it 
  September 3, 2015
Oh, I see below that your PhD was in artificial intelligence (AI). As an aside, do you see any future in AI as a way to supplement human male intelligence WRT the understanding of women? As you know, the natural male capacity in that regard is and always has been hopelessly inadequate.
 I like it 
  September 3, 2015
By far your most astounding page yet, Gabor, and that's saying something! I don't even know where to begin. The design, execution, and presentation are all phenomenal -- a true tour de force. Love the ads. I'll have to come back to study the technical drawings (superb) and mechanicals in much more detail, as I've already spotted dozens of new tricks for my repertoire. The 2 variable pitch props I've attempted were way too bulky for actual use, so I'll be paying special attention to your solution there. BTW, what's your background, if you don't mind my asking? Noticed the Dr. in front of your name -- PhD, MD, or something else? I also do my best to stay true to real-world science and engineering in my functioning builds, but my efforts in that regard pale in comparison.
 I made it 
  September 3, 2015
Quoting Digital Dreams Amazing. I suspect a number of people overlooked this MOC because the thumbnail just looked like a car that looked a bit like a plane, but once again the detailing and write-up are absolutely phenomenal.
Thanks. I hesitated quite an amount about creating the thumbnail: if I put there just the car, or just the plane mode, that is even more average looking. I wanted to stress on the transition, but the thumbnail is just too small to represent it correctly.
 I like it 
  September 3, 2015
Amazing. I suspect a number of people overlooked this MOC because the thumbnail just looked like a car that looked a bit like a plane, but once again the detailing and write-up are absolutely phenomenal.
 I made it 
  September 3, 2015
Quoting adam thelegofan rutland awesome!:D
Thanks.
 I like it 
  September 2, 2015
awesome!:D
 I made it 
  September 2, 2015
Quoting Emmanuel Spencer I Great job!
Thanks.
 I made it 
  September 2, 2015
Quoting Caleb S. Very nice job! You have been selected Most Artistic in the Brick Awards! I hope you'll accept the invitation I've given you.
Thanks, I am pleased to accept your invitation.
 I like it 
  September 2, 2015
Great job!
 I like it 
  September 2, 2015
Very nice job! You have been selected Most Artistic in the Brick Awards! I hope you'll accept the invitation I've given you.
 I made it 
  September 1, 2015
Quoting c bigboy99899 Incredibly good work. High quality, enormous complexity. Playable, working and good looking. Congratulations!
Thanks. I am very grateful for your artistic quality renderings, they helped a lot to introduce the model to the public.
 I like it 
  September 1, 2015
Incredibly good work. High quality, enormous complexity. Playable, working and good looking. Congratulations!
 I made it 
  September 1, 2015
Quoting Stephan Niehoff Wow, a very good job. I love the technical aspects. Very well staged and explains Technically.
Thanks.
 I like it 
  September 1, 2015
Wow, a very good job. I love the technical aspects. Very well staged and explains Technically.
 I made it 
  September 1, 2015
Quoting brick car This is the best Lego car(and moc in general),I have ever seen!It is super detailed and reallistic,everything that can be included in a flying car is in it,you are a perfect and accurate designer and engineer!1000/5(and great presentation)!!!
Thanks.
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting Nerds forprez Insanely intricate and detailed. Wonderful job!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
This is the best Lego car(and moc in general),I have ever seen!It is super detailed and reallistic,everything that can be included in a flying car is in it,you are a perfect and accurate designer and engineer!1000/5(and great presentation)!!!
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting Henrik Jensen This is wildly impressive! The amount of mechanical parts cramed into this build is so amazing. I have to get back to this Again, it`s impossible to get over it all at once. Brilliant idea with this flying car, and it fits perfectly in your row of models. Excellent Work, and a pleassure to study!
Thanks, looking forward your questions.
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
This is wildly impressive! The amount of mechanical parts cramed into this build is so amazing. I have to get back to this Again, it`s impossible to get over it all at once. Brilliant idea with this flying car, and it fits perfectly in your row of models. Excellent Work, and a pleassure to study!
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting Steve The Squid Holy cow this is beyond a doubt the best technic model I have ever seen. I was most blown away by your fantastic variable speed transmission; I still have sheepo's model built at home, and couldn't believe how small you've made it! My most pressing question I must ask you is how the axle holding the wheel in the transmission is actuated to change gears, and also I'm not sure what purpose the screwdriver serves in the LDD model, as it looks like it just prevents the wheel from moving. I just have no words for how incredibly cool this is, as somebody who is currently in their sophomore year of studying mechanical engineering. I'm definitely rebuilding several components of this model once I go home next just to see how it all works, but I REALLY want to see somebody build this entire thing as a physical model. I know it'll be fragile, but I want to see if everything works as intended, at least to some degree. I very much look forward to seeing more from you! I have 2 more pressing questions: how long did this model take from concept to finish, and are you simply using "we" and "our" in the writings in order to preserve the format of design reports, or was this a combined effort of multiple people?
Thanks. My answers: 1. In the CVT gear shift, the rubberized friction wheel is fixed on the sloped axis. The sloped axis can rotate and slide in its 2 bearings, besides the wheel, there is a bush in the sloped axis, having a gap between them. The screwdriver lays in this gap and it is fixed to a gear shift swingarm. The screwdriver can force the sloped axis to slide, causing some mild extra friction. I will not worry about the screwdriver to block sloped axis. The most worrysome is in my point of view that screwdriver will break off when you try to put gear shift from neutral to low. An inherent disadvantage is that there was no space left to fix shift arm in a given position, one has to hold it by hand. 2. Design time was 18 days, but I have many experience preliminary with the servo system in my earlier heavy battlefield helicopter MOC (it is not published yet). Writing the post and drawing pictures was another 18 days. 3. I designed it myself alone. BigBoy helped in the high quality artistic rendering of action pictures.
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
Holy cow this is beyond a doubt the best technic model I have ever seen. I was most blown away by your fantastic variable speed transmission; I still have sheepo's model built at home, and couldn't believe how small you've made it! My most pressing question I must ask you is how the axle holding the wheel in the transmission is actuated to change gears, and also I'm not sure what purpose the screwdriver serves in the LDD model, as it looks like it just prevents the wheel from moving. I just have no words for how incredibly cool this is, as somebody who is currently in their sophomore year of studying mechanical engineering. I'm definitely rebuilding several components of this model once I go home next just to see how it all works, but I REALLY want to see somebody build this entire thing as a physical model. I know it'll be fragile, but I want to see if everything works as intended, at least to some degree. I very much look forward to seeing more from you! I have 2 more pressing questions: how long did this model take from concept to finish, and are you simply using "we" and "our" in the writings in order to preserve the format of design reports, or was this a combined effort of multiple people?
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting Oran Cruzen A great work of Lego "Flying Car" creationism!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
A great work of Lego "Flying Car" creationism!
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
Insanely intricate and detailed. Wonderful job!
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting Polino zs Everything you made, you simply made a record high in this LEGO world! With sincere thanks, I will keep on learning from you, thank you so much, man!
You are welcome.
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting Joost Cumps This is amazing! The engeneering is mind blowing, and it looks just so crazy nice!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
Everything you made, you simply made a record high in this LEGO world! With sincere thanks, I will keep on learning from you, thank you so much, man!
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
This is amazing! The engeneering is mind blowing, and it looks just so crazy nice!
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting JS Can This was your PhD dissertation, right?
No, that was in the field of Artificial Intelligence.
 I like it 
  August 31, 2015
This was your PhD dissertation, right?
 I made it 
  August 31, 2015
Quoting Zach Sweigart Extremely fun build and so detailed and educational to boot! The perfect use of Lego!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  August 30, 2015
Extremely fun build and so detailed and educational to boot! The perfect use of Lego!
 I made it 
  August 30, 2015
Quoting Seaman SPb Fantastic work! And beautiful design!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  August 30, 2015
Fantastic work! And beautiful design!
 I made it 
  August 30, 2015
Quoting Sam Sanister Did you build the TECHNIC insides to fit the outer shell, the other way around, or were both built at the same time?
I designed dynamic parts first, then I put them in a technic airframe consisting of technic axle longerons and technic lever ribs, finally it was covered by two layers of system plates (the upper layer is from curved tiles). So it uses very different building technique than cars in general.
 I like it 
  August 30, 2015
Did you build the TECHNIC insides to fit the outer shell, the other way around, or were both built at the same time?
 I made it 
  August 30, 2015
Quoting Centurion Cone Cool! you nailed it yet again!
Thanks.
 I made it 
  August 30, 2015
Quoting Traykar the swift Sweet ride!
Thanks.
 I like it 
  August 30, 2015
Cool! you nailed it yet again!
 I like it 
  August 30, 2015
Sweet ride!
 
By Gabor Pauler
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